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The battle of Talavera of 27-28 July 1809 was the first of Sir Arthur Wellesley’s great victories in Spain during the Peninsular War. Field guns fired a ball projectile, of limited use against troops in the field unless those troops were closely formed. 48th Regiment at the Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. 2 guns were also positioned on a northern spur of the Cerro de Medellin. During the night, Victor received information that Wellesley was seeking to march around his right flank. Mackenzie’s Division, the British rearguard, crossed the River Alberche and marched to a group of buildings called the Casa de Salinas, some 3 miles short of the line along the Portina Stream. Battle of Talavera - Date: The fighting at Talavera … The Battle of Talavera (27–28 July 1809) saw an Imperial French army under King Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan attack a combined British and Spanish army led by Sir Arthur Wellesley. On 11th July 1809, Wellesley and Cuesta had a difficult four-hour conference to work out a plan of campaign. Talavera may refer to: Battle of Talavera de la Reina Spain, an 1809 battle of the Peninsular War Battle of Talavera de la Reina 1936 during the Spanish Alcazar Add your article Home Those Spanish regiments that were engaged performed well. In Spain: The War of Independence As the main battles—Talavera (July 1809) and Vitoria (June 1813)—were fought by Wellington, the guerrillas pinned down French garrisons, intercepted dispatches, and isolated convoys. Wellesley refused to accompany him, insisting that the Spanish authorities provide the baggage animals he needed to move supplies for his troops. Sir Arthur Wellesley positioning Spanish regiments at the Battle of Talavera on 27th/28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. The Battle of Talavera de la Reina was fought on 3 September 1936 in the Spanish Civil War. ‘The General’s Hat’ at the Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809. were of particular use against buildings. He boldly led his 23,000 men into Spain, but a month later had to retreat rapidly, pursued by the enemy. The regiments to the right of the 29th were the First Battalion of Detachments and the 48th Regiment of Stewart’s Brigade: then Tilson’s Brigade, flanked by the 2 brigades of King’s German Legion, then Sherbrooke’s Division, with Donkin’s Brigade in the rear. Gate of Talavera: Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. The battle of Talavera in 1809 was one of the major battles of the Peninsular War and Arthur Wellesley's first victory in Spain itself, following which he was created Viscount Wellington of Talavera and Wellington. A discussion took place as to the next move for the French army. Napoleon exploited the advances in gunnery techniques of the last years of the French Ancien Régime to create his powerful and highly mobile artillery. After several of their assaults were bloodily repulsed on the second day, the French retreated toward Madrid leaving the battlefield to the Anglo-Spanish army. The attack was deferred for a day, by which time Victor had retired and the opportunity of fighting him before he could be reinforced by Sebastiani and Joseph had been lost. The French appeared to have broken its centre. While the total Spanish and British army outnumbered the French by 55,000 to 45,000, the French troops facing the British section of the line numbered 30,000 against 16,500 British and German troops, with a substantially heavier and more numerous artillery. At the northern end of the line, Victor resolved to mount an immediate attack on the thinly held Cerro de Medellin, without waiting for the rest of the French army to come up. With Portugal liberated, Wellington turned his attention to Spain, and planned a joint operation with a Spanish army under General Cuesta. Venegas’ Spanish army, following Sebastiani, received various conflicting orders from the Supreme Junta in Seville and from Cuesta and halted on the road to Madrid from the south-east, losing contact with Sebastiani. With the French driven back, the British infantry were able to march to the main line, covered by the cavalry brigades of Anson, Cotton and Fane, but under a heavy fire from French horse artillery. At the beginning of the French attack on the Cerro de Medellin, the French 96th of the Line moved to the left, crossed the Portina Brook and engaged Langwerth’s Brigade of the King’s German Legion. There they encountered 46,000 French under Marshal Claude Victor and Major-General Horace Sebastiani, with the French king of Spain, Joseph Bonapartein nominal command. 4 ForeignRegiments (Irish, Napoles) 4. Cuesta’s Spanish army was even further forward, at Torrijos, 15 miles from Toledo. At midnight, the Spanish troops unleashed a heavy fire, leading Sir Arthur Wellesley to believe the French were launching another attack. Cotton’s Brigade (14th and 16th Light Dragoons) launched a charge into the left flank of Sebastiani’s division and the whole of the French centre began to fall back. The next battle of the Peninsular War is the Battle of Usagre Visit our dedicated Podcast page or visit Podbean below. The British infantry were called to their feet and lined the edge of the summit. The Spanish cavalry did not attack the French Dragoons and, even with the arrival of Spanish infantry, no aggressive move was made against Latour Maubourg’s men. During the French attack in the centre, the French guns on the Cerro de Cascajal fired a heavy bombardment on the British troops on the Cerro de Medellin, inflicting severe casualties, particularly on Donkin’s Brigade. These troops formed behind the British cavalry brigades of Fane and Anson to the west of the Cerro de Medellin. Podcast of the Battle of Albuera: Marshal Beresford’s hard-fought battle against Marshal Soult on 16 th May 1811 during the Peninsular War, with his army of British, Portuguese and Spanish troops: John Mackenzie’s britishbattles.com podcasts The previous battle in the Peninsular War is the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro. Due to the age and indisposition of General Cuesta, Wellesley became responsible for positioning the Spanish troops along the line from Talavera town to the Paiar de Vergarar. The Talavera Battlefield Monument near Talavera in Spain, commemorates the Battle of Talavera, which took place on 27 and 28 July 1809 and was the Duke of Wellington’s – then Sir Arthur Wellesley’s – first major victory of the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars. This news made it essential to fight, as Joseph could not detach a sufficient force to hold Madrid against the advancing Spanish army of Venegas, coming up from the south-east and still confront Cuesta and Wellesley with sufficient strength. Royal Carabineers (Real Brigada de Carabinerosde Linea) 6. Talavera may refer to: Battle of Talavera de la Reina, Spain, an 1809 battle of the Peninsular War Battle of Talavera de la Reina 1936 during the Spanish The Ba Add your article Home Events soon compelled Wellesley, who was soon appointed Viscount Wellington, to fall back toward his base in Portugal. The information was incorrect, but it caused Victor to put his corps into precipitate retreat. These remaining German regiments also ran off into the vineyards, leaving a battery of guns. The British rifle battalions (60th and 95th Rifles) carried the Baker rifle, a more accurate weapon but slower to fire, and a sword bayonet. Victor was determined to renew his attack in daylight. Talavera, Battle of, Talavera de la Reina, Spain, 1809 Please provide your name, email, and your suggestion so that we can begin assessing any terminology changes. With these failings, during the course of the afternoon and evening of 27th July 1809, Wellesley’s army formed along the Portina Brook line, north of the Paiar de Vergarar to the Cerro de Medellin, in this order: from the right, British guns on the Paiar de Vergarar, with Campbell’s Brigade next in line; behind the Portina Brook, Kemmis’ Brigade, the Foot Guards, with Mackenzie’s Brigade behind the Foot Guards, then more British guns, Cameron’s Brigade, Langwerth’s KGL Brigade with the rest of the British guns. The 83rd and the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the KGL suffered casualties of more than half their number. The Battle of Talavera. On 10th July 1809, Wellesley made the short journey to Casas del Puerto, on the far side of the River Tagus, to consult with General Cuesta and see at first hand the quality of his substantial Spanish army. It was planned that Sebastiani’s Corps would take the left of the French advance, but his troops were still coming up on the east bank of the River Alberche, only Merlin’s dragoon division having crossed. The British were developing shrapnel (named after the British officer who invented it) which increased the effectiveness of exploding shells against troops in the field, by showering them with metal fragments. Talavera, Battle of, Talavera de la Reina, Spain, 1809 Please provide your name, email, and your suggestion so that we can begin assessing any terminology changes. The French troopers dismounted and awaited the Spanish were great calm. At Wellesley’s suggestion, Cuesta’s army formed a defensive line stretching from the town of Talavera to the north, as far as a small plateau called the Paiar de Vergarar. Cuesta’s army, disorganised by its headlong retreat, reached the River Alberche, the tributary that flows into the River Tagus from the north-east 3 miles to the east of Talavera, during the afternoon of 26th July 1809, where Wellesley, after bringing forward Sherbrooke’s infantry division to cover the Spanish troops, attempted to persuade Cuesta to cross the Alberche to the west bank. The 48th, 24th, 31st and 45th Regiments formed a line, opening their ranks to allow the retreating regiments through and engaged the advancing French in a duel of volley firing, during which, Colonel Donnellan, commanding the 48th Foot, was mortally wounded. British casualties in the engagement were nearly 450 men killed, wounded or captured. Reinforced by the 40th Regiment, Campbell’s line, with its right flank against the Pajar de Vergara, discharged volleys into the advancing Germans, while the British guns in the redoubt on the Pajar de Vergara fired grapeshot into their left flank. They marched up the Tagus valley to Talavera, some 120 km southwest of Madrid. British and French troops drinking from the Portina Brook during the Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War: picture by C. Delort. Finally, a report came from Milhaud that the Spanish were advancing on the French left. In the darkness, the 24th of the Line became lost and failed to deliver an attack. After some hours, Victor finally moved a further 3 miles forward to Santa Olalla, where his corps camped for the night. British casualties amounted to more than a quarter of their army, while French casualties were less than a sixth of their army. Having driven Marshal Soult's French army from Portugal, General Wellesley's 20,000 British troops advanced into Spain to join 33,000 Spanish troops under General Cuesta. The Battle of Talavera was fought during the Peninsular War which was part of the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815). Cuesta, elderly and ill, was deeply suspicious of Wellesley, who he suspected was trying to replace him. This was not the case. Grenadier and Light Company man of the 29th Foot: Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War: Hamilton Smith. Lapisse’s Division was positioned on Villatte’s left, supported by Latour-Maubourg’s dragoon division. Most of the French cannon shots passed over the heads of the British 29th Regiment, lying down behind the crest of the slope. The French infantry of the 27th opened a damaging fire on the helpless troopers. Wellesley’s battalions suffered under 400 casualties from the infantry attack and the initial cannonade, half by Löw’s KGL Brigade. After several of their assaults were bloodily repulsed on the second day, the French retreated toward Madrid leaving the battlefield to the Anglo-Spanish army. Of Ruffin’s 3 regiments, each of 3 battalions, the 24th of the Line was to march around the north of the Cerro de Medellin and attack the British flank, while the 9th Light was to cross the ravine of the Portina Brook and make a frontal assault, with the 96th of the Line crossing the Portina Brook further south and attacking the right flank of the British troops on the Cerro de Medellin. Book your escape today! British reinforcements were arriving in Lisbon for Wellesley’s army, but were being held up by the shortage of mule carts to carry equipment and supplies and cash for Wellesley’s treasury. 48th at the Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. French deserters overnight revealed the plan of attack to Wellesley, who, at dawn, was on the Cerro de Medellin, watching Ruffin’s Divisional columns on the edge of the Portina Brook ravine, waiting to advance and Villatte’s Division on the summit of the Cerro de Cascajal, with 30 guns in battery to their front and Beaumont’s cavalry in support. 3rd Foot Guards at the Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. Of the French artillery, 30 guns were on the crest of the Cerro de Cascajal, with 30 more on the lower slopes and the rest with the Fourth Corps. General Hill was issuing orders to Stewart’s Brigade to support Löw’s KGL battalions, when he saw men firing down from the crest of the Cerro de Medellin. Events soon compelled Wellesley, who was soon appointed Viscount Wellington, to fall back toward his base in Portugal. Cazadores (Cazadores Espanolas de la Guardia) Infantry 1. General de Division François Amable Ruffin: Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. Wellesley’s information on the French dispositions was that Victor’s Corps was retreating before him towards Talavera and Madrid, Ney was likely to remain in Galicia, the condition of Soult’s Corps was so bad as to preclude it from acting against him and Mortier’s Corps was in Valladolid. Commander-in-Chief of the Anglo-Spanish Army: Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Wellesley, Commander-in-Chief: Lieutenant General The Rt Hon Sir Arthur Wellesley KB, Total Anglo-Spanish forces: 52,735, 66 guns, Commander-in-Chief: Lieutenant General Don Gregorio Garcia de la Cuesta y Fernández de Celis, Captain-General of Castilla, Spanish cavalry units ending in a number (Nr.) The 24th and 96th lost 40 officers and around 1,100 men killed, wounded or captured, most of the wounded being left on the slope leading up to the British position. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});
, Date of the Battle of Talavera: 28th July 1809, Joseph Bonaparte: Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. 6 SwissRegiments 5. General Hill saw the French advance beginning, in spite of the pall of smoke that shrouded the French positions and gave the order to recall the British light companies from the bank of the Portina Brook. Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. Two French generals were killed; Lapisse and van Porbeck. After his perverse failure to fight when circumstances were favourable, Cuesta pursued Victor’s army towards Toledo. The KGL comprised both cavalry and infantry regiments. The French cavalry comprised Cuirassiers, wearing heavy burnished metal breastplates and crested helmets, Dragoons, largely in green, Hussars, in the conventional uniform worn by this arm across Europe, and Chasseurs à Cheval, dressed as hussars. At Talavera an Anglo-Spanish army under Sir Arthur Wellesley combined with a Spanish army under General Cuesta in operations against French-occupied Madrid. On finding that the concentrated French army amounted to 40,000 men, Cuesta began to fall back. Ruffin’s regiments were formed in a different order from the previous night’s attack. Following this engagement, Wellesley ordered Rettberg’s battery of guns to the top of the Cerro de Medellin and re-positioned the infantry, permitting the 29th to remain on the summit, where it flaunted its colours, the regiment occupying the extreme left of the British line. The two French divisions, preceded by a swarm of skirmishers, crossed the Portina Brook and advanced in solid masses against the line of the German brigades of Löw and Langwerth, Cameron and the British Foot Guards. The KGL owed its allegiance to King George III of Great Britain, as the Elector of Hanover, and fought with the British army. Size of the armies at the Battle of Talavera: 16,500 British and Germans with 35,000 Spanish against 45,000 French. The Battle of Albuera almost resulted in defeat for the allied armies, but ended largely inconclusively with terrible losses on both sides. Battle of Talavera de la Reina, Spain, an 1809 battle of the Peninsular War; Battle of Talavera de la Reina (1936), during the Spanish Civil War 4 comments Background. Some regiments did reach the army: 23rd Light Dragoons and the 48th and 61st Foot. The Spanish unleashed a terrific volley along their whole line, following which, four Spanish battalions turned and fled the battlefield. To achieve this end, Joseph had been corresponding with Soult on bringing together the French Second, Fifth and Sixth Corps for an advance towards Portugal. Spanish losses were said by Cuesta to be 1,500. The French 96th of the Line was additionally subjected to a fire into its left flank from the KGL battalions, brought forward by Sherbrooke. On reaching the summit of the Cerro de Medellin, the leading company of the 29th fired a volley into the French and charged them, driving them back into the ravine. The battle of Talavera, fought on 28 th July, 1809, resulted in a defeat of the French army, and a most significant victory for the Duke of Wellington, then Sir Arthur Wellesley. Cuesta’s army arrived in Velada on 21st July 1809, some 12 miles east of Wellesley. The King’s German Legion (KGL) was the Hanoverian army in exile. This report turned out to be untrue, but it was now 6pm and it seemed clear that the attacks had all failed. Towards the end of the action between Campbell’s brigade and Leval’s Division, the divisions of Lapisse and Sebastiani attacked the British First Division, commanded by Sherbrooke. The French attack initially fell on the British right, where the light companies of Campbell’s Brigade were surprised in the area of vineyards and walled gardens around the Pajar de Vergara, losing prisoners to the German troops of Leval’s Division. Once the French infantry were well up the slope, the French guns ceased firing to avoid hitting their own men. History: The Battle of Talavera 1809. Victor, following his success over Mackenzie’s Division at the Casa de Salinas, brought the rest of his corps over the River Alberche and advanced towards Wellesley’s positions, with Ruffin’s Division to the front on the right, followed by Villatte’s Division, with Lapisse’s Division on the left, followed by Beaumont’s 2 cavalry regiments and with Latour-Maubourg’s cavalry division spread across the plain to the left, in front of the Spanish positions. Stewart’s men waited until the French infantry were within close range, before firing a volley which halted the French advance. Looking for exceptional deals on Talavera Battle Monument, Talavera de la Reina vacation packages? Ruffin’s division was to advance with all 3 regiments around the north of the Cerro de Medellin, supported by a brigade of Villatte’s Division. Joseph’s chief of staff, Jourdan, was against another attack, urging the danger that the Spanish might advance and force their way through the French army, driving it north into the mountains and leaving the road to Madrid open to the Spanish and British. Throughout the Peninsular War and the Waterloo campaign, the British army was plagued by a shortage of artillery. Attack by Anson’s Light Cavalry Brigade at the Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809. The 87th suffered 200 casualties, with 34 of them taken prisoner. It would seem that General Cuesta’s coach driver joined the flight, with the general an unwitting passenger. Most of the casualties were probably due to desertion, as few were engaged during the battle. Both light cavalry regiments reformed and continued with their attack, the 1st Hussars being beaten off by the square of the 24th and the 23rd coming to grief in front of the square of the 27th Light or in a punishing fight with Merlin’s Cavalry Division. ~43 Regiments of Provincial Militia 6. Life Guards (Reales Guardias de Corps) 5. 12 Regiments of Light 3. The 23rd, unexpectedly, came up to a stream running across their front. Talavera has been obscured in the historical record by later battles in the Peninsular War, but Field's painstaking narrative explains why the battle is worthy of examination. Hill was surrounded by French infantrymen, one of whom grabbed his bridle and called on him to surrender. 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